Untreated samples (left image) show mitochondria with normal morphology, which are long and highly branched.
Ciprofloxacin-treated cells (10 μg/ml) (right image) had abnormally short and truncated mitochondria. The percentages of mitochondria with a short versus long aspect ratio and rounded versus branched form factor were measured for untreated and bactericidal antibiotic–treated cells.
Aiding in the digestion of foods, competes with pathogens, degrades mucin and promotes the differentiation of epithelial cells and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.
In addition, the composition and metabolic activity of the microbiota has profound effects on proinflammatory activity and the induction of immune tolerance by influencing a broad range of mucosal cell types including epithelial cells, dendritic cells, iNKT cells and T lymphocyte subset activity